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台湾海峡西侧海湾-岛屿系统影响下的流场年季变化——以南日水道为例
陈宇,林于渟,束芳芳,蔡鸿泰,李云海,池文琦,何佳,陈智杰,郑斌鑫
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(中电投广西核电有限公司,广西 防城港 538000;自然资源部第三海洋研究所,福建 厦门 361005;福建省海洋物理与地质过程重点实验室,福建 厦门 361005)
摘要:
台湾海峡地理位置独特,西侧海域海湾-岛屿系统普遍发育,显著影响了海域流场分布。同时,海峡西岸经济区的快速发展对区域海洋动力环境背景场及其变化的精细认识提出了更高的要求。福建莆田南日岛西侧南日水道是连通兴化湾与平海湾的主要水道,是区域海洋动力环境的“咽喉”所在,在区域海洋环境保护与科学开发利用中居于至关重要的位置。为了全面认识台湾海峡西侧海湾-岛屿系统影响下区域海洋动力环境背景场的年季变化,本研究利用布放在南日水道的座底观测系统获得的周年海流资料,结合同期气象风场资料,通过数据统计分析、调和分析、滤波处理和小波变化等手段,研究了南日水道内海流的季节变化规律和驱动余流的动力要素,初步探讨了热带气旋等对海洋动力演化过程的影响。研究结果表明,研究海域潮流为不正规半日浅海潮流,并具有明显的半月周期,涨潮流大于落潮流,涨潮流主方向为 WNW 向,落潮流主方向为 SE—ESE向。旋转谱结果表明,研究海域以半日潮为主,逆时针能量强于顺时针,惯性周期无明显的谱峰。潮流强度的季节变化特征为冬季最强,秋季、春季次之,夏季最弱。夏、秋季的余流流速较其他季节明显偏大,表层余流有明显的季节特征,底层余流全年为北向流。观测点余流主要由风引起,二者有很好的相关性,但频率统计结果显示二者方向不一致,表明余流在地形的作用下发生了转向,其中潮致余流对表层余流贡献较小。小波能量图表明,双台风(热带气旋)期间风和余流均存在1 d及6 d左右的周期信号,二者密切相关。本研究成果对于区域海洋环保以及海域科学开发与应用具有重要的现实意义。
关键词:  海洋水文学  潮流  余流  年季变化  海湾-岛屿系统  热带气旋  南日水道
DOI:10.3969/J.ISSN.2095-4972.20220720001
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(41976050)
Annual and seasonal variations of current fields influenced by the bay-island system on the western side of Taiwan Strait:a case study of Nanri Channel
CHEN Yu,LIN Yuting,SHU Fangfang,CAI Hongtai,LI Yunhai,CHI Wenqi,HE Jia,CHEN Zhijie,ZHENG Binxin
(Guangxi Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., China Power Investment Corporation, Fangchenggang 538000, China;Third Institute of Oceanography, MNR, Xiamen 361005, China;Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Physical and Geological Processes, Xiamen 361005, China)
Abstract:
Taiwan Strait has an unique geographical location, and the bay-island system in the western sea area is generally developed, which significantly affects the current field distribution of sea area. At the same time, the rapid development of the economic zone on the west coast of Taiwan Strait has put forward higher requirements for a deeper understanding of the background field of regional marine dynamic environment and its changes. Nanri Channel is the main waterway connecting Xinghua Bay and Pinghai Bay. In order to fully understand the annual changes of the background field of the regional marine dynamic environment under the influence of the bay-island system in the western side of Taiwan Strait, using statistical analysis, harmonic analysis, filtering and wavelet analysis, we studied the seasonal variations and driving mechanisms of coastal currents in Putian in the west side of Taiwan Strait, and preliminarily discussed the impact of extreme weather on the hydrodynamic evolution process. Results show that the tidal current in the study area is irregular semi-diurnal shallow water current, and the measured current has an obvious semi monthly periodic change. The flood tide velocity is larger than the ebb tide, and the main direction of the flood tide is WNW, the ebb tide is SE-ESE. The results of rotation spectrum show that the study area is under the influence of the semi-diurnal tidal energy with the counterclockwise energy stronger than clockwise, and there is no obvious spectral peak in the inertia period. The seasonal variations of tidal intensity are ranked as winter, spring and autumn, and then summer. The residual current velocities in summer and autumn are larger than those in other seasons and the surface residual current has obvious seasonal characteristics. The main WSW direction in spring, the NE direction in summer and the W directions in autumn and winter. The residual current flows northwardly throughout the year, showing obvious compensation flow properties at the bottom. The observed residual current is mainly caused by wind, and the magnitude of tidal residual current is very small compared with the surface and the correlations between them are significant. The wavelet energy spectrum shows that there is a good correspondence between the wind and current. The enhancement of 1d and 6 d periodic signals may be related to the typhoon transitions in summer. Results of this paper have important practical significance for regional marine environmental protection and marine scientific development and application.
Key words:  marine hydrology  tide  residual current  annual and seasonal changes  bay-island system  tropical cyclones  Nanri Channel

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