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台风过境期间辽河口滨海湿地水动力特征的数值模拟研究
王煜嘉,孙振宇,赵学凯,赵梓宇,弓耘,许慧,张明亮
0
(大连海洋大学、海洋科技与环境学院,辽宁 大连 116023;辽宁省近海生态环境与灾害防护工程技术创新中心,辽宁 大连 116023)
摘要:
本研究基于FVCOM环流模型,耦合ECMWF背景风场和Jelesnianski台风经验模型形成合成风场,对9711台风“温妮”过境辽河口区域的水动力进行模拟研究。模型通过在动量方程、湍流方程中加入附加源项来表达盐沼植被对水动力的阻碍作用。使用研究区域实测的潮位、流速、流向等数据对水动力模型进行验证,模拟结果与实测数据吻合较好。结果表明:潮滩盐沼植被对台风过境期间的潮位变化无明显影响,但对流速具有显著的衰减作用,且芦苇对潮流的衰减作用大于盐地碱蓬植被,芦苇区的速度最大衰减率达81.43%。此外,台风路径变化对辽河口湿地海域的增减水及流速影响较大,台风强度越强,局部区域造成的风暴潮增水和流速也相应越大。
关键词:  海洋水文学  FVCOM  参数化台风模型  风暴潮  盐沼植被
DOI:10.3969/J.ISSN.2095-4972.20220930001
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(51879028,U21A20155);大连市科技创新基金(2021JJ11CG001)
Numerical simulation of hydrodynamic characteristics of coastal wetland in Liaohe Estuary during typhoon transit
WANG Yujia,SUN Zhenyu,ZHAO Xuekai,ZHAO Ziyu,GONG Yun,XU Hui,ZHANG Mingliang
(Dalian Ocean University, School of Ocean Science and Environment, Dalian 116023, China;Liaoning Offshore Ecological Environment and Disaster Prevention Engineering Technology Innovation Center, Dalian 116023, China)
Abstract:
Based on the FVCOM circulation model, the synthetic wind field is formed by coupling the ECMWF background wind field and Jelesnianski typhoon empirical model to simulate the hydrodynamic situation of 9711 typhoon “Winnie” passing through the coastal wetlands of Liaohe Estuary. We add an additional source terms into the momentum equations and turbulence equations to express the resistance of salt marsh vegetation on hydrodynamics. The model is verified with measured tidal level, flow velocity, flow direction and other data in the study area. It shows that the simulated results are in good agreement with the measured data since the salt marsh plants on the tidal flat show no obvious influence on the process of tide level. Besides a significant attenuation effect on the flow velocity, the attenuation effect of Phragmites australis on flow velocity at a maximum attenuation rate 81.43% is greater than that of Suaeda salsa. In addition, the track of typhoon has a great influence on the storm surge and flow velocity in the coastal wetlands of Liaohe Estuary. The stronger the typhoon is, the greater the storm surge and flow velocity caused by the storm surge in the local area.
Key words:  marine hydrology  FVCOM  typhoon empirical model  storm surge  salt marsh plant

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