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广西钦州湾围垦工程对茅尾海潮汐动力参数的影响
张敏,曾繁如,吴航星,陆迪文,米婕,戴晓爱,鲁恒,张东辉,高宇,朱冬琳,陈波
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(广西科学院、广西北部湾海洋研究中心、广西近海海洋环境科学重点实验室,广西 南宁 530007;上海师范大学环境与地理科学学院,上海 200234;四川水利职业技术学院,四川 成都 611830;成都理工大学地球科学学院,四川 成都 610059;四川大学水力学与山区河流开发保护国家重点实验室,四川 成都 610065;中国科学院空天信息创新研究院遥感卫星应用国家工程实验室,北京 100094;天津中科谱光信息技术有限公司,天津 300392)
摘要:
北部湾茅尾海是中国南方重要的经济开发区,兴建有滨海新城和多个港口码头,近年来围垦开发严重。本研究通过建立二维水动力数值模型系统,分析重要潮汐动力参数,对比研究1985年与2020年间钦州湾围垦和港口建设对当地水动力环境的影响。结果表明:经过围填海和港口工程之后,茅尾海的潮差变化较小,略微增加了0.05 m左右;全日分潮K1O1及半日分潮M2S2是影响钦州湾潮汐动力较大的驱动力,围垦后在茅尾海内海地区都略微增加了0.02~0.03 m,其中K1O1是影响茅尾海的关键潮汐动力参数,敏感性测试分析表明三墩公路建设、钦州港海岸围垦和核电厂导堤建设对茅尾海潮差增加贡献率大致占60%、20%和10%;同时,围垦对束窄钦州湾航道具有一定的优化效应,围垦后钦州湾外湾三条水道峰值通量都明显增加,形成航道束水攻沙效果,对通航和维护主航道稳定性具有一定优势。因此,仅从潮汐动力参数变化角度分析,目前的围垦和港口工程迎合了当地河势特征,对潮汐动力场扰动较小,具有优化局部水动力场环境和提升通航安全性作用。
关键词:  海洋水文学  数值模拟  围填海  河势稳定性  潮汐水动力  茅尾海
DOI:10.3969/J.ISSN.2095-4972.20220909002
基金项目:广西近海海洋环境科学重点实验室开放基金(GXKLHY21-02);国家自然科学基金(42171282);上海市浦江人才计划(21PJC096)
Impacts of reclamation projects on tidal parameter dynamics in Maowei Sea of Qinzhou Bay, Guangxi
ZHANG Min,ZENG Fanru,WU Hangxing,LU Diwen,MI Jie,DAI Xiaoai,LU Heng,ZHANG Donghui,GAO Yu,ZHU Donglin,CHEN Bo
(Guangxi Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Guangxi Beibu Gulf Marine Research Center,Guangxi Academy of Sciences, Nanning 530007, China;School of Environmental and Geographical Sciences, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, China;Sichuan Water Conservancy College, Chengdu 611830, China;School of Earth Sciences, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059, China;State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Development and Protection, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China;National Engineering Laboratory of Remote Sensing Satellite Application, Institute of Aerospace Information Innovation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100094, China;Tianjin Zhongke Puguang Information Technology Co., Ltd., Tianjin 300392, China)
Abstract:
Maowei Sea of Beibu Gulf is an essential economic development zone in southern China, constructed with several ports and terminals. Recently, the coastline has been heavily reclaimed. Here, we developed a two-dimensional hydrodynamic numerical modeling system to analyze the impact of reclamation and port construction between 1985 and 2020 based on the comparison of three important tidal dynamic parameters, i.e., tidal elevation difference, main astronomical tidal components, and tidal flux for the safe development of local hydrodynamic environment in Qinzhou Bay. Results show that the tidal difference is small but slightly increased around 0.07 m after the reclamation. The primary diurnal tidal component K1,O1, semidiurnal tidal component M2andS2 are the major driving forces on the tidal forcing in Qinzhou Bay as it slightly increased by 0.02-0.03 m after reclamation. The reclamation maintained the deep channel by constraint the flows, thus flushed the depositions. K1andO1 are important tidal dynamic parameters affecting Maowei Sea. Sensitivity test shows that the construction of Sandun highway, coastal reclamation of Qinzhou Bay and the construction of nuclear power plant have increased the tidal difference in Maowei Sea for 60%, 20%, and 10%, respectively. Consequently, the reclamations improved the regime by narrowing the channel, and the peak flux of the three waterways in the outer Qinzhou Bay has increased significantly favoring to some extend the navigation and maintaining the stability of the main channel. Therefore, from the perspective of tidal dynamics regulations, the current coastline reclamations foster a good development of the bay regime in view of little disturbance on tidal dynamics, optimization of local hydrodynamic environment and the improvement of navigation safety.
Key words:  marine hydrology  numerical simulation  coastal reclamation  regime stability  tidal hydrodynamics  Maowei Sea

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