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九龙江口海门岛红树林湿地大型底栖动物群落生态研究
周细平,徐帅良,吴培芳,李艺蝉,沈露,吴兆东,刘爽,刘东艳,王玉珏,王跃启
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(厦门大学嘉庚学院环境科学与工程学院,福建 漳州 363105;厦门大学嘉庚学院河口生态安全与环境健康福建省高校重点实验室,福建 漳州 363105;中国科学院海岸带环境过程与生态修复重点实验室,山东 烟台 264003)
摘要:
为研究福建省九龙江口海门岛大型底栖动物的群落结构变化,于2014年11月至2015年8月对海门岛红树林区的大型底栖动物进行4个季度的调查研究,并利用PRIMER软件进行群落物种多样性单变量分析、群落聚类分析(Cluster)、多维尺度排序(MDS)分析和丰度/生物量曲线(ABC)分析.结果表明:九龙江口海门岛红树林区获得大型底栖动物共计112种,年平均生物量为77.58 g/m2,年平均栖息密度为991.0 ind/m2.Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(H′)、丰富度指数(d)和均匀度指数(J′)分别为2.42、5.02和0.70,其中春季生物多样性指数和均匀度指数均最低,与春季生物的繁殖有关.ABC曲线表明该区域有三分之一采样点的大型底栖动物群落受到中等到严重程度的扰动,主要集中在春季站位,这与该季节渔民滩涂养殖作业活动有关.Cluster聚类分析和MDS标序结果表明,在50%的相似性水平群落可分为6组,且不同组间显示季节差异显著.结合历史资料发现,大型底栖动物群落随环境质量的变化已出现了一定的群落演替,物种呈小型化趋势.环境因子与群落分布特征相关性较大, 其中最能解释群落丰度和生物量空间分布特征的环境因子为水温、盐度和有机质含量.
关键词:  海洋生物学  红树林  大型底栖动物  群落结构分析
DOI:10.3969/J.ISSN.2095-4972.2019.01.003
基金项目:国家自然科学基金资助项目(41606119);福建省自然科学基金资助项目(2017J05068);2016年度福建省高等学校新世纪优秀人才支持计划资助项目(闽教科[2017]52号)
Community ecology of macrobenthos in the mangrove wetland of Haimen Island, Jiulongjiang Estuary
ZHOU Xi-ping,XU Shuai-liang,WU Pei-fang,LI Yi-chan,SHEN Lu,WU Zhao-dong,LIU Shuang,LIU Dong-Yan,WANG Yu-jue,WANG Yue-qi
(School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Xiamen University Tan Kah Kee College, Zhangzhou 363105, China;Key Laboratory of Estuarine Ecological Security and Environmental Health, Fujian Province University, Tan Kah Kee College,Zhangzhou 363105, China;Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003, China)
Abstract:
In order to understand the change of macrobenthic community structure in Jiulongjiang Estuary in Fujian, four seasonal investigations on the macrobenthos were carried out in the mangrove wetland of Haimen Island from November 2014 to August 2015. Based on the data of species compositions, the macrobenthic community structures were studied with methods of univariate variable analysis, Cluster analysis, MDS analysis and abundance and biomass curves (ABC). The results showed that 112 macrobenthic species were identified and the annual biomass and abundance of macrobenthos were 77.58 g/m2 and 991.0 ind/m2, respectively. Univariate variable analysis showed that Shannon Wiener diversity index (H′), species richness index (d) and evenness indices (J′) were 2.42, 5.02 and 0.70, respectively. Among them, the biodiversity index and the evenness index were the lowest in spring, which likely due to the peak of reproduction in spring.ABC curves revealed that the communities on 1/3 of the sampling stations suffered moderate to severe degree of disturbance, which occurred mostly in spring. The fisherman activities on the mudflat in spring might have caused the disturbances. Cluster and MDS analysis showed that 6 groups can be formed at 50% similarity level with significant differences among the groups. Combined with the historical data, the community succession of macrobenthic communities was found to have varied with the environmental quality and the species had become miniaturized. Environmental factors had a great correlation with the characteristics of community distribution and water temperature, salinity and organic matter content could best explain the spatial distribution of community abundance and biomass.
Key words:  marine biology  mangrove  macrobenthos  community structure analysis

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