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福建沿海鲸鲨时空分布初探及保护对策
程昊,高旻昊,赵丽媛,曾千慧,雍李明,张语克,甄毓,王先艳
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(中国海洋大学三亚海洋研究院, 海南 三亚 572024;自然资源部海洋生态保护与修复重点实验室, 福建 厦门 361005;自然资源部第三海洋研究所, 福建 厦门 361005;上海海洋大学海洋科学学院, 上海 201306;青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室海洋生态与环境科学功能实验室, 山东 青岛 266071;中国海洋大学海洋环境与生态教育部重点实验室, 山东 青岛 266100)
摘要:
搁浅、误捕和救助记录是研究野生动物分布和获取其基本生物学数据的重要来源,尤其是对那些缺少系统性野外调查的物种。本研究收集了福建沿海2006—2019年间鲸鲨(Rhincodon typus)的搁浅、误捕和救助记录,初步探讨福建沿海鲸鲨的时空分布情况,并提出相应的保护对策。共收集福建沿海鲸鲨搁浅、误捕和救助记录30例,包括搁浅10例、误捕18例和救助2例,其中福州鲸鲨记录大部分在平潭岛附近,这可能与平潭海域上升流带来的丰富生物资源有关;所有记录中有28例(93.3%)发生在6—10月,表明夏秋季可能是鲸鲨在福建沿海活动的高峰期。此外,有体长记录的22条鲸鲨中,17条(77.3%)为幼年个体,可能是因为幼年鲸鲨偏好在高生产力的近岸海域聚集以获取充足的食物,因此也更容易搁浅或被误捕。较多的误捕记录(60.0%)提示渔业活动对鲸鲨有较大威胁。因此,建议建立全省甚至全国性的鲸鲨搁浅误捕数据库,进一步严格和规范渔业管理,改进渔具以降低误捕鲸鲨的概率,加强对公众(特别是渔民)的宣传教育,以更好地保护这一濒危物种。
关键词:  海洋生物学  鲸鲨  误捕  搁浅  时空分布  保护对策
DOI:10.3969/J.ISSN.2095-4972.20230313001
基金项目:福建省自然科学基金(2021J0131);国家重点研发计划课题(2022YFF0802202);国家自然科学基金(42076159);中国 东盟海洋合作基金(HX04-210901)
Preliminary study on the spatiotemporal distribution of whale sharks along the coast of Fujian Province and conservation recommendations
CHENG Hao,GAO Minhao,ZHAO Liyuan,ZENG Qianhui,YONG Liming,ZHANG Yuke,ZHEN Yu,WANG Xianyan
(Sanya Oceanographic Institution, Ocean University of China, Sanya 572024, China;Key Laboratory of Marine Ecological Conservation and Restoration, MNR, Xiamen 361005, China;Third Institute of Oceanography, MNR, Xiamen 361005, China;College of Marine Sciences, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China;Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266071, China;Key Laboratory of Marine Environment and Ecology, Ministry of Education,Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China)
Abstract:
Stranding, bycatch and rescue records provide an important source of information for studying the distribution and basic biological data of animals, especially for those species lacking systematic field survey. This paper collected the records of stranding, bycatch and rescue of the whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) along the coast of Fujian Province from 2006 to 2019 and discussed preliminarily their temporal and spatial distributions in this area for proposing conservation recommendations. It showed that there were 30 cases of bycatch, stranding, and rescue of whale sharks along the coast of Fujian, including 10 cases of stranding, 18 cases of bycatch, and 2 cases of rescue. Fuzhou had the highest number of records of whale sharks, and most of them were around Pingtan Island which might be related to the rich biological resources caused by the upwelling in this area. 28 records (93.3%) occurred from June to October, indicating that summer and autumn may be the peak period of the whale shark activities along the coast of Fujian. In addition, most of the whale sharks recorded in this paper were juvenile individuals (77.3%), which preferred to gather in highly productive waters for sufficient food and made them prone to stranding or being caught by accidents. A large number of bycatches (60.0%) indicated that human activities, especially fishery, had a serious impact on whale sharks. Therefore, it suggested that a provincial or even national database of whale shark stranding and bycatch be established and further fishery management be tightened and standardized. The works of improving fishing gear, reducing the probability of catching whale sharks by accidents and strengthening publicity and education among the public, especially among fishermen, are necessarily preformed in order to have a better protection for this endangered species.
Key words:  marine biology  Rhincodon typus  bycatch  stranding  spatiotemporal distribution  conservation recommendations

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