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海南文昌沿岸海草床的现状及其退化因素分析
徐步欣,张剑,郎尚昆,陈石泉,吴钟解,王道儒
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(海南热带海洋学院 热带海洋生物资源利用与保护教育部重点实验室,海南 三亚 572022;海南省海洋与渔业科学院,海南 海口 570125)
摘要:
通过对比2012、2018、2020年海南文昌沿岸海草床的调查数据,对文昌海草床的现状、退化状况以及退化因素进行分析。结果表明,2020年文昌海域海草有2科6属6种,分别为泰来草(Thalassia hemprichii)、圆叶丝粉草(Cymodocea rotunda)、单脉二药草(Halodule uninervis)、海菖蒲(Enhalus acoroides)、卵叶喜盐草(Halophila ovalis)及针叶草(Syringodium isoetifolium)。文昌海草床的分布呈明显退化的趋势,海草床面积由2012年的31.8 km2减少到2018年的24.2 km2,2020年进一步降低至18.8 km2。分析数据显示, Cu、Cd、Cr等重金属离子与调查区海草床的盖度显著负相关,表明在低营养负载时文昌周边虾塘养殖废水排放带来的重金属污染也会导致文昌海草床的退化。
关键词:  海洋生物学  海草退化  资源调查  拟合分析  金属离子
DOI:10.3969/J.ISSN.2095-4972.2022.04.007
基金项目:海南省重点研发资助项目(ZDYF2020202);国家重点研发计划资助项目(2017YFC0506104);海南省海洋与渔业科学专项资助项目(R10026304)
Ecological status and degradation factors in seagrass beds along the coast of Wenchang, Hainan
XU Buxin,ZHANG Jian,LANG Shangkun,CHEN Shiquan,WU Zhongjie,WANG Daoru
(Key Laboratory of Utilization and Conservation for Tropical Marine Bioresources (Hainan Tropical Ocean University), Ministry of Education, Sanya 572022, China;Hainan Academy of Ocean and Fisheries Sciences, Haikou 570125, China)
Abstract:
Based on the survey in seagrass beds along the coast of Wenchang, Hainan Province in 2012, 2018 and 2020, we compared the growth status and recessions, and analyzed the influencing factors leading to the seagrass bed recessions. The results showed that there were 6 species of seagrass belonging to 6 genus in 2 families along Wenchang coast, including Thalassia hemprichii, Cymodocea rotunda,Halodule uninervis, Enhalus acoroides, Halophila ovalis and Syringodium isoetifolium. The seagrass beds along Wenchang coast experienced significant degradation, with area decreased from 31.8 km2 in 2012 to 24.2 km2 in 2018, and to 18.8 km2 in 2020. Similarly, the number of species, coverage, density and biomass of the seagrass also declined from 2012 to 2020. Statistical analysis showed that contents of heavy metal ions such as Cu, Cd and Cr are significantly negatively correlated with the seagrass coverage, indicating that the heavy metal pollution from aquaculture effluent around seagrass beds may be the main reason for the deterioration of seagrass beds.
Key words:  marine biology  seagrass degradation  resource survey  statistic analysis  metal ion

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