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微塑料对海洋生物生态毒理学效应研究进展
薄军,陈梦云,方超,郑榕辉,王素敏,洪幅坤,张玉生
0
(国家海洋局第三海洋研究所,福建 厦门 361005)
摘要:
海洋环境中的微塑料主要来源于陆源塑料垃圾输入、海上船只塑料垃圾的丢弃和水产养殖业漂浮装置的废弃等.微塑料的大小、形状和颜色与海洋生物的食物相似,容易被海洋生物误食,由于微塑料自身的毒性及其表面吸附的有毒化学物,对海洋生物及其生态系统具有直接和潜在的危害.本研究主要综述了微塑料对海洋生物产生影响的途径、毒性效应及其效应机制的研究进展状况;提出未来应重点加强微塑料环境浓度的长期效应、微塑料与其他污染物的联合效应及其机制、微塑料效应的生物标志物筛选以及生态风险评估技术的研究等.
关键词:  海洋生物学  微塑料  海洋生物  毒性效应  效应机制
DOI:10.3969/J.ISSN.2095-4972.2018.04.016
基金项目:国家海洋局第三海洋研究所基本科研业务费资助项目(海三科2016013);福建省自然科学基金资助项目(2016Y0062, 2016J01191);厦门市海洋垃圾监测、评估与防治技术业务化研究资助项目(2016-ZS159);国家海洋局双边海洋国际事务合作资助项目
Advance in the study on ecotoxicological effects of microplastics on marine organisms
BO Jun,CHEN Meng-yun,FANG Chao,ZHENG Rong-hui,WANG Su-min,HONG Fu-kun,ZHANG Yu-sheng
(Third Institute of Oceanography, SOA, Xiamen 361005, China)
Abstract:
Microplastics in marine environment mainly terrigenous plastic debris or those from marine vessel dumping and discarded floating devices in aquaculture,etc. Microplastics are easily taken unexpectively by marine organisms due to the food similarity of their size, shape and color. Microplastics have direct and potential effects to marine organisms and ecosystems due to the toxicities of microplastics and toxic chemicals adsorbed on their surfaces or released from microplastics. This paper reviews research progress in the effect pathways, toxic effects and mechanisms of microplastics on marine organisms. Furthermore, we propose that the following studies on microplastics in future should be focused on the longterm toxic effects under environmental concentrations, the effects and mechanisms of microplastic alone and its mixture with other pollutants,the biomarker selection and the ecological risk assessment.
Key words:  marine biology  microplastics  marine organism  toxic effects  mechanism

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