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海湾开发利用强度分析——以宁波市杭州湾、象山港与宁波市三门湾为例
李加林,姜忆湄,冯佰香,黄日鹏,何改丽,王丽佳,田鹏,刘瑞清
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(宁波大学地理与空间信息技术系,浙江 宁波 315211;宁波大学东海研究院,浙江 宁波 315211)
摘要:
海湾开发利用强度评估可反映海湾利用程度,是海湾开发潜力及其可持续开发研究的基础,对发展湾区经济意义重大.以1990—2015年每隔5 a共6期TM/ETM/OLI影像为数据源,提取宁波市杭州湾、象山港和宁波市三门湾各时期的岸线及土地利用数据,基于此从海湾岸线开发和土地利用两方面综合分析海湾开发利用强度及其变化特征.结果表明:1990—2015年间,宁波3湾岸线人工化程度不断加深,岸线人工化指数最高的海湾由象山港(0.16)转变为宁波市三门湾(0.61),部分淤泥岸段(尤其是宁波市杭州湾岸段)滩涂围垦强度弱于泥沙淤积强度,削弱了岸线人工化程度.整个研究期间,宁波市三门湾和宁波市杭州湾的岸线开发利用结构始终为单一主体结构,象山港则呈现出由单一主体依次向二元、多元结构演变的趋势.1990—2015年间,宁波3湾的岸线和土地利用强度均有所增加,其中象山港岸线开发利用强度指数最大,达0.42;宁波市杭州湾区域土地利用变动最为强烈,土地利用程度指数最大,达292.300.区位和资源禀赋、社会经济水平及政策因素是造成宁波3湾区域开发利用程度差异的重要因素.
关键词:  海洋环境科学  开发利用强度  岸线人工化程度  土地利用程度  湾区经济  海湾
DOI:10.3969/J.ISSN.2095-4972.2018.04.010
基金项目:NSFC-浙江两化融合联合基金资助项目(U1609203);国家自然科学基金资助项目(41471004);国家社科基金重大资助项目(16ZDA050);宁波市重大科技计划资助项目(2015C110001);2017年度宁波市与中国社科院战略合作研究课题《宁波海湾开发与保护策略研究》资助项目(NZKT201706)
Analysis of intensively exploited bay area with cases of Ningbo Hangzhou Bay, Xiangshan Bay and Ningbo Sanmen Bay
LI Jia-lin,JIANG Yi-mei,FENG Bai-xiang,HUANG Ri-peng,HE Gai-li,WANG Li-jia,TIAN Peng,LIU Rui-qing
(Department of Geography & Spatial Information Technology, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China; Donghai Institute of Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China)
Abstract:
Exploitative intensity evaluation is the basis for potential and sustainable development of a bay, which can reflect the utilization level of the bay. It is of great significance to the economy development in bay area. The data resource is from 6 phases, in interval of 5 years, of TM/OLI remote sensing image in period of 1990 and 2015, from which we can get coastline and land utilization data of Hangzhou Bay, Xiangshan Bay and Sanmen Bay in areas of Ningbo. Base on the data, the paper makes a comprehensive analysis of the characteristics and the changes in three bays from two aspects, the coastline exploitation and development and land utilizations of the bays. The results show that firstly the artificialization of Ningbo bays has been intensified from 1990 to 2015. And the highest index of artificial coastline has moved from Xiangshan Bay (0.16) to Sanmen Bay (0.61). The artificialization degree in some parts of tideland has been weakened for the intensity of reclamation is weaker than the intensity of sediment deposition. Secondly, for a long period the utilization structures of coastline in Hangzhou Bay and Sanmen Bay of Ningbo have always been a monotonous main body structure while it has changed to binary or even multivariate structures in Xiangshan Bay. Thirdly, the intensity of land and coastline uses are increasing. Among them Xiangshan Bay has the highest intensity index of coastline utilization and it reaches 0.42. And index of land use degree finds its maximum (292.300) in Hangzhou Bay of Ningbo where it gets the strongest land use changes. Fourthly, the zone bit, resources endowment, social economy level and policy factors are important factors modifying the development and utilization of the three bays.
Key words:  marine environmental science  development and utilization intensity  shoreline artificial degree  land use degree  bay area economy  bays

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